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ACP InternistLong-term PPI Use Associated with Higher Incidence of Dementia

Patients who used proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) from midlife to latelife had a moderately elevated risk of dementia in later life compared to nonusers, while shorter-term usage was not.

A recent study has found a significant association between long-term use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) and an increased risk of dementia in patients aged 45 and older. The study, published in Neurology, suggests that using PPIs for more than four years can elevate the risk of developing dementia by one-third.

Key Points:
  • The study analyzed data from 5,712 dementia-free participants, with a mean age of 75.4 years, from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.
  • The median follow-up period was 5.5 years, during which 585 cases of incident dementia were recorded.
  • Patients who used PPIs for more than 4.4 years prior to the baseline visit had a 33% higher risk of developing dementia during the follow-up period (HR, 1.3 [95% CI, 1.0 to 1.8]).
  • The researchers noted that the association between current PPI use and dementia risk was positive but not statistically significant.
Additional Points:
  • The study used ARIC visit 5 as the baseline, as this was the first visit where PPI use was common among participants.
  • PPI use was assessed through visual medication inventory and annual phone calls.
  • Associations for less than 4.4 years of PPI use were not found to be significant.

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